Du, P., Arndt, S.K. and Farrell, C. 2018. Relationships between plant drought response, traits, and climate of origin for green roof plant selection. Ecological Applications. 28:1752-1761.

Grey, V., Livesley, S. J., Fletcher, T. D., and Szota, C. 2018. Establishing street trees in stormwater control measures can double tree growth when extended waterlogging is avoided. Landscape and Urban Planning, 178, 122-129.

V Grey, SJ Livesley, TD Fletcher and Szota C. 2018. Tree pits to help mitigate runoff in dense urban areas.  Journal of Hydrology, 565: 400-410.

Soanes K, Sievers M, Chee YE, Williams N, Bhardwaj M, Marshall A and Parris K (2018) Correcting common misconceptions to inspire conservation action in urban environments. Conservation Biology 2018.

Szota, C., McCarthy, M., Sanders, G., Farrell, C., Fletcher, T., Arndt, S. & Livesley, S. (2018) Tree water-use strategies to improve stormwater retention performance of biofiltration systems. Water research, 144: 285-295.

Williams K, Lee K, Hartig T, Sargent L, Williams N, Johnson K (2018) Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes. J Environmental Psychology 59: 36–45.

Somerville, P., May, P. and Livesley, S. 2018. Effects of deep tillage and municipal green waste compost amendments on soil properties and tree growth in compacted urban soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 227:365-374

Bonneau, M., C. E. Hauser, N. S. G. Williams, and R. D. Cousens. 2018. Optimal schedule for monitoring a plant incursion when detection and treatment success vary over time. Biological Invasions 20:741-756.

Kendal, D., C. Dobbs, R. V. Gallagher, L. J. Beaumont, J. Baumann, N. S. G. Williams, and S. J. Livesley. 2018. A global comparison of the climatic niches of urban and native tree populations. Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Zhang, Z., C. Szota, T. D. Fletcher, N. S. G. Williams, J. Werdin, and C. Farrell. 2018. Influence of plant composition and water use strategies on green roof stormwater retention. Science of the Total Environment 625:775-781.


Orozco-Aguilar L, Johnstone D, Livesley S J and Brack C (2017) The overlooked carbon loss due to decayed wood in urban trees. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (in press)

Pianella A, Aye L, Chen Z and Williams N S G (2017) Substrate Depth, Vegetation and Irrigation Affect Green Roof Thermal Performance in a Mediterranean Type Climate. Sustainability 9(8):1451 doi:10.3390/su9081451

Nitschke C R, Nichols S, Allen K, Dobbs C, Livesley S J, Baker P J and Lynch Y (2017) The influence of climate and drought on urban tree growth in southeast Australia and the implications for future growth under climate change. Landscape and Urban Planning 167: 275-287.

Threlfall, C., Kendal, D. (2017) The distinct ecological and social roles that wild spaces play in urban ecosystems, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2017.05.012

Dobbs, C., Martinez-Harms, M. J., Kendal, D. (2017) The ecosystem service concept and its importance for socio-ecological systems, in Ferrini, F., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C., Fini, A. (eds) Handbook of Urban Forestry, Routledge, New York

Harris, V., Kendal, D., Hahs, A., Threlfall, C. (2017) Green space context and vegetation complexity shape people’s preferences for urban public parks and residential gardens, Landscape Researchdoi:10.1080/01426397.2017.1302571

Ossola, A., Aponte, C., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Contrasting effects of urban habitat complexity on metabolic functional diversity and composition of litter and soil bacterial communities. Urban Ecosystems, 20(3): 595-607.

Dobbs, C., Nitschke, C. & Kendal, D. (2017) Assessing the drivers shaping global patterns of urban vegetation landscape structure. Science of The Total Environment, 592, 171–177.

Kaspar, J., Kendal, D., Sore, R., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Random point sampling to detect gain and loss in tree canopy cover in response to urban densification. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 24: 26-34.

Mata, L., Threlfall, C.G., Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., Malipatil, M., Stork, N.E., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces. Scientific Reports, 7, art. no. 40970.

Threlfall, C.G., Mata, L., Mackie, J.A., Hahs, A.K., Stork, N.E., Williams, N.S.G., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Increasing biodiversity in urban green spaces through simple vegetation interventions. Journal of Applied Ecology (Article in Press)

Sanusi R, Johnstone D, May P and Livesley S J (2017) Microclimate benefits that different street tree species provide to sidewalk pedestrians relate to differences in Plant Area Index. Landscape and Urban Planning 157:502-511


Pianella, A. Aye, L., Chen, Z., Williams, N.S.G. (2016) Effects of design and operating parameters on green roof thermal performance in Melbourne. 5th International Conference on Zero Energy Mass Customised Housing, Kuala Lumpur 2016,

Pianella, A., Bush, J., Chen, Z., Williams, N.S.G., Aye, L. (2016) Green roofs in Australia: review of thermal performance and associated policy development. 50th International Conference of Architectural Science Association, Adelaide 2016.

Chambers D.P., Walker C., Williams K., Rayner J., Farrell C., Butt A.-M. & Rostan-Herbert D. (2016) Engaging Students with Environmental Sustainability at a Research Intensive University: Examples of Small Successes. In: Teaching Education for Sustainable Development at University Level, pp. 205-219. Springer International Publishing.

Coutts A. M., Harris, R. J., Phan, T, Livesley, S.J. Williams, N.S.G. and. Tapper, N.J. (2016) Thermal infrared remote sensing of urban heat: hotspots, vegetation, and an assessment of techniques for use in urban planning. Remote Sensing of Environment 186, 637-651

Parmher E, Amati M, Taylor E J, Livesley S J (2016) Estimation of urban tree canopy cover using random point sampling and remote sensing methods. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 20: 160-171

Pianella, A., Clarke, R.E., Williams, N.S.G., Chen, Z., Aye, L. (2016) Steady-state and transient thermal measurements of green roof substrates. Energy and Buildings, 131: 123-131.

Hardgrove, S.J., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Applying spent coffee grounds directly to urban agriculture soils greatly reduces plant growth. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 18: 1-8.

Ossola, A., Hahs, A.K., Nash, M.A., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Habitat Complexity Enhances Comminution and Decomposition Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Ecosystems, 19 (5): 927-941.

Ossola, A., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Drivers of soil heterogeneity in the urban landscape. In Urban Landscape Ecology: Science, Policy and Practice. (Eds.) Robert A. Francis, James D.A. Millington, Michael A. Chadwick. Chapter 2, pp. 19-41.

Coutts, A.M., White, E.C., Tapper, N.J., Beringer, J., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 124: 55-68.

Baumann, J.M., Walker, K., Threlfall, C., Williams, N.S. (2016) African Carder bee,’Afranthidium (Immanthidium) repetitum'(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): A new exotic species for Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist 133: 21.

Aronson, M.F.J., Nilon, C.H., Lepczyk, C.A., Parker, T, Warren, P.S., Cilliers, S, Goddard, M.A., Hahs, A.K., Herzog, C, Katti, M, La Sorte, F.A., Williams, N.S.G. and Zipperer, W. (2016)  Hierarchical filters determine community assembly of urban species pools. Ecology 97, 2952-2963.

Palma, E., Catford, J.A., Corlett, R.T., Duncan, R.P., Hahs, A.K., McCarthy, M.A., McDonnell, M.J., Thompson, K., Williams, N.S.G., Vesk, P.A. (2016) Functional trait changes in the floras of 11 cities across the globe in response to urbanization. Ecography 40, 875-886.

Rayner, J.P., Farrell, C., Raynor, K.J., Murphy, S.M., Williams, N.S. (2016) Plant establishment on a green roof under extreme hot and dry conditions: The importance of leaf succulence in plant selection. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 15: 6-14.

Threlfall, C.G., Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Approaches to urban vegetation management and the impacts on urban bird and bat assemblages. Landscape and Urban Planning 153: 28-39.

Livesley, S.J., McPherson, G.M., Calfapietra, C. (2016) The urban forest and ecosystem services: Impacts on urban water, heat, and pollution cycles at the tree, street, and city scale. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(1): 119-124.

Sanusi, R., Johnstone, D., May, P., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Street orientation and side of the street greatly influence the microclimatic benefits street trees can provide in summer. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(1): 167-174.

Livesley, S.J., Ossola, A., Threlfall, C.G., Hahs, A.K., Williams, N.S.G. (2016) Soil carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio change under tree canopy, tall grass, and turf grass areas of urban green space. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45(1): 215-223


Threlfall, C.G., Walker, K., Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., Mata, L., Stork, N., Livesley, S.J. (2015) The conservation value of urban green space habitats for Australian native bee communities. Biological Conservation, 187: 240-248

Ossola, A., Nash, M.A., Christie, F.J., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J. (2015) Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants. PeerJ DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1356

Farrell C, Szota C, Arndt SK. Urban Plantings: ‘Living Laboratories’ for Climate Change Response. Trends in Plant Science, 2016. 20(10): 597-599.

Farrell, C., C.T.N. Cao, X.Q. Ang and J.P. Rayner, 2016. Use of water-retention additives to improve performance of green roof substrates. Acta Hort. (ISHS): 271-278.

Williams NSG, Rayner JP, Lee KE, Fletcher TD, Chen D, Szota C and F. C., 2016. Developing Australian green roofs: overview of a 5-year research program. Acta Hort (ISHS).: 345-352

Szota, C., C. Farrell, S.J. Livesley and T.D. Fletcher, 2015. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater. Water Research.  doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.06.024.

Richards, P.J., C. Farrell, M. Tom, N.S. Williams and T.D. Fletcher, 2015. Vegetable raingardens can produce food and reduce stormwater runoff. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening.  doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2015.06.007.

Ossola, A., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J., 2015. Habitat complexity influences fine scale hydrological processes and the incidence of stormwater runoff in managed urban ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Management, 159, 1:10. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.05.002

Chisholm, R., Menge, D.N.L.; Fung, T., Williams, N.S.G. and Levin, S.A. (2015) The potential for alternative stable states in nutrient-enriched invaded grasslands. Theoretical Ecology (Accepted February 2015)

Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K. and Vesk, P.A. (2015) Urbanisation, plant traits and the composition of urban floras. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 17, 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ppees.2014.10.002

Coutts A, White E, Tapper N J, Beringer J and Livesley S J (2015) Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments. Theoretical and Applied Climatology DOI:10.1007/s00704-015-1409-y (accepted January 2015)

Norton B A, Coutts A, Livesley S J, Harris R J, Hunter A and Williams N S G (2015) Planning for cooler cities: prioritising the use of green infrastructure to mitigate high temperatures in urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning


Williams, N.S.G, Lundholm, J.T., MacIvor, J.S. (2014) Can green roofs help urban biodiversity conservation? Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 1643-1649 DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12333

La Sorte, F.A., Aronson, M.F.J., Williams, N.S.G., Celesti-Grapow, L., Cilliers, S., Clarkson, B.D., Dolan, R.W., Hipp, A., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Pyšek, P., Siebert, S., Winter, M. (2014) Beta diversity of urban floras among European and non-European cities. Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/geb.12159

Cao, C.T., C. Farrell, P.E. Kristiansen and J.P. Rayner, 2014. Biochar makes green roof substrates lighter and improves water supply to plants. Ecological Engineering 71: 368-374.

Lee, K.E., K.J.H. Williams, L.D. Sargent, C. Farrell and N.S. Williams (2014) Living roof preference is influenced by plant characteristics and diversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 122: 152-159.

Norton, B. A., L. J. Thomson, N. S. G. Williams, and M. J. McDonnell (2014) The effect of urban ground covers on arthropods: An experiment. Urban Ecosystems 17: 77-99.

Aronson, M. F. J., F. A. La Sorte, C. H. Nilon, M. Katti, M. A. Goddard, C. A. Lepczyk, P. S. Warren, N. S. G. Williams, S. Cilliers, B. Clarkson, C. Dobbs, R. Dolan, M. Hedblom, S. Klotz, J. L. Kooijmans, I. Kühn, I. Macgregor-Fors, M. McDonnell, U. Mörtberg, P. Pyšek, S. Siebert, J. Sushinsky, P. Werner, and M. Winter (2014) A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281 1780: 20133330

Hunter A., Aye L., Williams N. S. G., Rayner J. P., Hes D. and Livesley S. J. (2014) Quantifying the thermal performance of green façades: a critical review. Ecological Engineering, 63: 102-113.


Berry R, Livesley S J and Aye L (2013) Tree canopy shade impacts on solar irradiance received by building walls and their surface temperature. Building and Environment 69: 91-100.

Farrell C., Ang X.Q. & Rayner J.P. (2013). Water-retention additives increase plant available water in green roof substrates. Ecological Engineering, 52, 112-118.

Farrell C., Szota C., Williams N.S.G. & Arndt S.K. (2013). High water users can be drought tolerant: using physiological traits for green roof plant selection. Plant and Soil, 1-17.

Grover S.P.P., Cohan A., Chan H.S., Livesley S.J., Beringer J. & Daly E. (2013). Occasional large emissions of nitrous oxide and methane observed in stormwater biofiltration systems. Science of the Total Environment 465:41-71

Livesley S J, Baudinette B and Glover D (2013) Rainfall interception and stem flow by eucalypt street trees – the impacts of canopy density and bark type. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2013.09.001

Luck G.W., Smallbone L., Threlfall C. & Law B. (2013). Patterns in bat functional guilds across multiple urban centres in south-eastern Australia. Landscape Ecology, 28, 455 – 469.

May P.B., Livesley S.J. & Shears I. (2013). Managing and monitoring tree health and soil water status during extreme drought in Melbourne, Victoria. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 39, 136-145.

Norton B.A., Thomson L.J., Williams N.S.G. & McDonnell M.J. (2013). The effect of urban ground covers on arthropods: An experiment. Urban Ecosystems, 1-23.

Threlfall C., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2013). Odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland. Biology Letters, 9.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2013). Roost selection in suburban bushland by the urban sensitive bat Nyctophilus gouldiJournal of Mammalogy, 94, 307-319.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2013). The urban matrix and artificial light restricts the nightly ranging behaviour of Gould’s long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi). Austral Ecology, in press.


Farrell C., Mitchell R.E., Szota C., Rayner J.P. & Williams N.S.G. (2012). Green roofs for hot and dry climates: Interacting effects of plant water use, succulence and substrate. Ecological Engineering, 49, 270-276.

Kendal D., Williams K.J.H. & Williams N.S.G. (2012). Plant traits link people’s plant preferences to the composition of their gardens. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105, 34-42.

Kendal D., Williams N.S.G. & Williams K.J.H. (2012). A cultivated environment: Exploring the global distribution of plants in gardens, parks and streetscapes. Urban Ecosystems, 15, 637-652.

Kendal D., Williams N.S.G. & Williams K.J.H. (2012). Drivers of diversity and tree cover in gardens, parks and streetscapes in an Australian city. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 11, 257-265.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2012). Influence of landscape structure and human modifications on insect biomass and bat foraging activity in an urban landscape. PLOS one, 7, e38800.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2012). Sensitivity of insectivorous bats to urbanization: Implications for suburban conservation planning. Biological Conservation, 146, 41-52.


Duncan R.P., Clemants S.E., Corlett R.T., Hahs A.K., McCarthy M.A., McDonnell M.J., Schwartz M.W., Thompson K., Vesk P.A. & Williams N.S.G. (2011). Plant traits and extinction in urban areas: A meta-analysis of 11 cities. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20, 509-519.

Threlfall C.G., Law B., Penman T. & Banks P.B. (2011). Ecological processes in urban landscapes: mechanisms influencing the distribution and activity of insectivorous bats. Ecography, 34, 814-826.


Kendal D., Williams N.S.G. & Williams K.J.H. (2010). Harnessing diversity in gardens through individual decision makers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 201-202.

Livesley S.J., Dougherty B.J., Smith A.J., Navaud D., Wylie L.J. & Arndt S.K. (2010). Soil-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in urban garden systems: Impact of irrigation, fertiliser and mulch. Urban Ecosystems, 13, 273-293.

Rayner J.P., Raynor K.J. & Williams N.S.G. (2010). Façade greening: A case study from Melbourne, Australia. ACTA Horticulturae, 881, 709-713.

Williams N.S.G., Hughes R.E., Jones N.M., Bradbury D.A. & Rayner J.P. (2010). The performance of native and exotic species for extensive green roofs in Melbourne, Australia. ACTA Horticulturae, 881, 689-696.

Williams N.S.G., Rayner J.P. & Raynor K.J. (2010). Green roofs for a wide brown land: Opportunities and barriers for rooftop greening in Australia. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 9, 245-251.


Hahs A.K., McDonnell M.J., McCarthy M.A., Vesk P.A., Corlett R.T., Norton B.A., Clemants S.E., Duncan R.P., Thompson K., Schwartz M.W. & Williams N.S.G. (2009). A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas. Ecology Letters, 12, 1165-1173.

Williams N.S.G., Schwartz M.W., Vesk P.A., McCarthy M.A., Hahs A.K., Clemants S.E., Corlett R.T., Duncan R.P., Norton B.A., Thompson K. & McDonnell M.J. (2009). A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras. Journal of Ecology, 97, 4-9.


Cilliers S.S., Williams N.S.G. & Barnard F.J. (2008) Patterns of exotic plant invasions in fragmented urban and rural grasslands across continents. Landscape Ecology 23, 1243-56.